Calcium is the main constituent of the skeleton structure and it is essential in the bone remodelling process. Calcium, taken orally, reaches the gastric environment, where it is converted into Calcium chloride, then absorbed by the intestinal mucosa through some transporter proteins. Almost all (about 99%) of the body’s total calcium is found in the skeleton. The remaining 1% is evenly distributed between the teeth and soft tissues, with only 0.1% in the extracellular fluid (e.g. blood).
After calcium, magnesium is the most present element in bones. In bone metabolism, it interacts closely with calcium and vitamin D and has a significant role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by actively participating in the absorption and fixation of calcium.
Zinc is one of the components of the bone matrix and is a cofactor of several enzymes involved in bone metabolism.
Its active form, Calcitriol, promotes the absorption of Calcium and Phosphorus.
Moreover, it mediates the incorporation of calcium into the bone matrix by strengthening the fibers network within the bone itself and thus leading to stronger bones
Vitamin K2 is a cofactor or two different proteins involved in calcium homeostasis: 1) Osteocalcin that binds calcium ions and fixes them within the bone matrix; 2) Matrix Gla Protein (MGP): it is the protein that disfavours vascular mineralization, which is the deposit of calcium in soft tissues and arteries where this mineral can be harmful.